Neurosurgery is a field of medicine that is associated with the prevention and treatment of any disorder related to the nervous system, comprising the brain, nerves, and spinal cord. Neurosurgical surgeries are performed by highly trained neurosurgeons who have specialized in this type of surgery.
When we talk about neurosurgeries, people might assume to know more about these procedures, but it is not a broad umbrella term. This form of surgery is extremely complex, and while it mainly involves treatment of the brain, there is a lot more to it. The best neurosurgery hospital in Bangalore has experienced neurosurgeons who have dedicated their practice to detect, prevent and treat such disorders.
Neurosurgery is a field that is extended to both adult and pediatric patients, and there are several options, surgical and non-surgical, to treat nervous disorders and injuries.
Surgery might be considered by your doctor in cases where there is an alteration to brain tissues, abnormal blood flow in the brain, to treat Parkinson’s, to remove tumors, to drain fluid from any brain infections, amongst other conditions. Your neurosurgeon will make a decision on which technique is best for each patient, depending on the patient’s medical conditions and lifestyle.
Common Neurosurgical Procedures:
A high-speed drill is used to remove a disc of bone (or “bone flap”) from the skull during a craniotomy. This allows the surgeon to gain access to the brain and perform surgery. The bone flap is then substituted, and plates, sutures, or wires are used to support it. Burr holes are small craniotomies, the size of a dime, while keyholes are larger-sized craniotomies.
The size of the craniotomy mainly depends on the underlying condition that requires treatment and also the region of the brain that is to be operated on.
- Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery
Endoscopic endonasal surgery is minimally invasive neurosurgery where a thin, flexible tube is used. This tube consists of a light source and a camera, also known as an endoscope. The tube is threaded through the sinus and the nose, and this enables a surgeon to access deep regions of the brain, which cannot easily be reached using traditional approaches. These traditional approaches require incisions to be made at the base of the skull or the top of the spine, which could carry its complications. The endoscope lights up regions of the brain to allow specific tools to be inserted to remove tumors or lesions.
Neuroendoscopy, like endoscopic endonasal surgery, is a minimally invasive procedure done using endoscopes. Small holes (nearly half the size of a dime) are tapped into the skull, nose, or mouth during neuro endoscopy. The surgeon would then mount an endoscope to detect any abnormalities in the region and find the best option to remove or repair them.
A biopsy is an invasive procedure in which a small amount of brain tissue is surgically removed and examined under a microscope. The sample is examined for structural or functional anomalies that may aid in the diagnosis or prognosis of a particular condition. A neurosurgeon will dig a small hole in the skull when the patient is under general anesthesia, then insert a thin needle to remove the tiny piece of tissue.
- Stereotactic Brain Surgery
In addition to craniotomies, biopsies, and endoscopic procedures, specialized imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) scans can be used if required. Scans are normally performed several days before surgery. They assist the surgeon in pinpointing the exact location of a brain abnormality.
The images acquired during surgery are paired with the previously obtained 3-dimensional brain scans. They assist the neurosurgeon in determining the safest path to remove as much abnormal tissue as possible while avoiding damage to normal tissue. This technique’s increased precision reduces the risk of injury or disruption to the surrounding tissue, and such scans are commonly used at the best neurosurgery hospital in Bangalore to ensure fewer complications post-surgery.
- Awake Brain Surgery
While you are awake and under a sedative, neurosurgeons may perform open or awake brain surgery. Intraoperative brain imaging is the medical term used for this procedure. When working on tumors that are close to sensitive areas of the brain, neurosurgeons often use this technique (such as brain areas that control vision, language, memory, or body movements). Small electrodes are used by the surgeon to trigger particular regions of the brain.
This is known as cortical mapping, and it aids in determining the function of regions of the brain surrounding the surgical site. A limb may twitch as a result of stimulation of a motor region, while sensory areas may cause a tingling sensation. The neurosurgeon may use cortical imaging to operate on complex areas of the brain with lowered chances of functional failure.
Remember that early preventive measures and treatment are the keys to save many lives from unnecessary complications of neurological disorders. If you or a loved one requires neurosurgical guidance from the most experienced neurosurgeons, book an appointment at the Best neurosurgery hospital in Bangalore immediately.